Virol J. 2015 Feb 8;12(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s12985-015-0251-2.
Schistosomiasis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C co-infection.
Gasim GI1, Bella A2, Adam I3,4.
Schistosomiasis is a significant health problem in more than 70 countries distributed between Africa, Asia and South America, with an infection rate of one in 30 individuals. Data on Schistosomiasis, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection are scarce; however, there is a high prevalence in countries where schistosomiasis is endemic.
A systematic search was performed on published data from 1980-2014.
Published papers in the databases Google, Medline, PubMed, and MiPc library were searched using the keywords epidemiology, pathogenesis and outcomes of HBV, HCV and schistosomiasis and data were extracted from the relevant studies.
The prevalence of HBV/schistosomiasis co-infection in countries where schistosomiasis is endemic was high, ranging between 9.6 to approximately 64% in Egypt, and a maximum of 15.8% among hospitalized patients in Brazil.
Concurrent infection between HBV and schistosomiasis is often associated with countries where schistosomiasis is endemic and may lead to chronic liver inflammation. Similarly, HCV infection rates in schistosomiasis populations range from 1% in Ethiopia reaching up to 50% in Egypt.
There is controversy regarding the effects of HBV and HCV on schistosomiasis and vice versa. Vaccination might be a solution to the era of schistosomiasis and co-infection with HBV and HCV.